For starters, the "Turbo Charger" plug is in fact different, it is capable of sending more power than the standard 5V usb chargers. According to this article, (and from what I can see from the text on the photos taken), the turbo charger has three levels of voltage outputs (other charger models may vary):
5V@1.6A(8W)Now, I do not have any electrical background so please do not hold me to it, but my understanding is that the higher the voltage, the higher the "force" or "pressure" (think of a bigger pipe) electricity is being delivered); hence the ability to quickly replenish power to a drained battery.
All of this is based on a rebranded Qualcomm technology known as Quick Charge 2.0; which intelligently selects the voltage depending on how empty your battery is. Somewhere I read in the comments that they do this to avoid over-heating the battery if you give it a constant high voltage charge. Below, you'll find some reference by Qualcomm talking about this technology. The really good news is that it seems like there are already devices supporting Quick Charge 2.0, but I think Google/Motorola is the one that really marketed in a big way (atleast enough for me to take notice).
Link 1 (Quick Charge 2.0 has arrived)
Link 2 (Quick Charge Partial Supported Device List)
Some of the devices currently supporting Quick Charge 2.0 are:
* HTC One M8
* Sony Xperia Z3
* Moto Droid Turbo
* Samsung Galaxy Note 4
* Sony Xperia Z2 Tablet